Things to Do in Czech Republic
Prague's central boulevard and largest public square, Wenceslas Square (Vaclavske namesti) has been the social and political heart of the city for hundreds of years and is home to some of the city’s finest works of architecture. Originally laid out in the 14th century as the centerpiece of King Charles's Nové Město (New Town), the square was used as a horse market until being renamed after the patron saint of Bohemia, Saint Wenceslas, in the 19th century.
Today Wenceslas Square is the commercial center of the city, dominated by grand monumental buildings and making the perfect starting point for walking tours of the city’s attractions. At the top of the square looms the striking neo-renaissance façade of the Prague National Museum, with its iconic dome marking an important strategic landmark.
What is called Prague Castle (or Pražský hrad) is actually a huge complex containing museums, churches, palaces, and gardens. The immense Gothic cathedral of St. Vitus is dominant on the skyline. The Castle complex, high on its hill above Charles Bridge and the Vltava River, is the focal point of Prague.
You can just go to wander - it's free to enter the Castle, even at night - or you can pay to enter some of the buildings and get a more in-depth view. Either way, the grandeur of the place will keep you busy for at least half a day. After all, this is the biggest castle complex in the world.
The buildings range from the Romanesque to the Gothic. The Royal Palace itself was home to Bohemian kings during the 9th century. The Basilica of St. George dates from the 10th century. You can also visit the Riding School, the gardens (open in the summer only), and Golden Lane, a charming row of medieval houses from the old goldsmith's district.
One of Prague’s biggest visitor attractions, the ornate 15th-century astronomical clock is found on the southern side of Prague’s Gothic Old Town Hall. Gilded and complex in design, the clock was made by Czech master clockmaker Mikuláš of Kadaň in 1410 although it has been repeatedly restored and added to over the centuries. Its upper face shows the time and day of the week, the lower one reveals delicately painted signs of the zodiac. Every hour, on the hour, hundreds of tourists gather around the clock to witness the figure of Christ emerge from tiny trap doors above the upper dial of the clock, followed by a collection of wooden Apostles, to act out a mini-medieval morality tale, while the skeletal figure of Death strikes a bell, Greed counts out his money and Vanity worships his reflection.
The Old Town Hall itself was built in 1338 and is today a popular venue for Prague weddings as well as home of the city’s main tourist information center.
Even when it's groaning under the weight of sketch artists, jazz musicians, trinkets and tourists, there's no resisting the charm of the Charles Bridge ('Karlův most' in Czech). Its 500 meters (1,640 feet) link the Old Town with Castle Hill and provide some of the best views of the city and of the graceful river Vltava. It was built in the 15th century to replace the older Judith Bridge, which had been swept away by floods. The Charles Bridge (originally called the Stone Bridge - the name was changed in the 19th century) has proved remarkably resilient. Some say it's down to the eggs mixed into its mortar. What makes the bridge so special is its rows of blackened baroque saints, each attended by angels and lions and followers. The statues emerging from the mists of a Prague dawn is one of the loveliest sights of the city. If you want to make sure you come back to Prague, touch the statue of St. John of Nepomuk (he was martyred by being thrown into the river from the bridge).
The Rudolfinum is a prestigious music and art venue located on Jan Palach Square on the bank of the Vltava River in Prague. This impressive neo-Renaissance building was built between 1876 and 1884, opening in 1885 to serve as a multi-purpose cultural center combining concert halls and exhibition rooms.
Today, the Rudolfinum is home to the Galerie Rudolfinum and hosts a varied programme of classical music concerts and art exhibitions. It is the home venue of the Czech Philharmonic Orchestra, which was founded in 1896. The Philharmonic Orchestra holds world-class classical performances throughout the year from the building’s largest hall, the Dvořák, which is one of the oldest concert halls in Europe and is noted for its exceptional acoustics. As well as being able to buy tickets for various performances and exhibitions at the Rudolfinum, guided tours are available for those interested in the history and architecture of the building.
Malá Strana is the area that meanders down from the Castle Hill to the Vltava River. A literal translation of its name would be 'Small Side' but its most often called the Lesser Side. Unfair? Well, while it might not have the grandeur of the Old Town across the river, many find it more charming.
Because the area was razed by fires in the 16th century, the architecture here is mainly baroque. Its finest site is the Wallenstein Palace with its fabulous walled garden full of fountains and statues. There's also the Church of Saint Nicholas and, high on Petřín Hill, a miniature replica of the Eiffel Tower.
St. Vitus (or Katedrála svatého Víta) is the biggest and most important church in Prague, the pinnacle of the Castle complex, and one of the most knockout cathedrals in Europe. It's broodingly Gothic, with a forest of spires and a rose window to rival that of Notre Dame.
Enter by the Golden Portal to take a look at the stunning Last Judgement mosaic. Inside you'll find the final resting places of both Charles IV (who gave his name to Charles Bridge) and Saint Wenceslas. The chapel containing Wenceslas' remains is a stunner, encrusted with semi-precious stones.
The cathedral also contains the crown jewels of the Bohemian kings and an Art Nouveau window by Mucha. Climb the tower for a stunning view of the Castle District.
The Estates Theatre is one of the most beautiful historical theaters in Europe. Built in less than two years, it opened in 1783, making it Prague's oldest theater. The site, known by locals as Stavoske divaldo, is famous for its connection with Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who spent quite some time in Prague working on operas that would later be performed here. His Marriage of Figaro was played here in 1786, and the next year, Mozart personally conducted the world premiere of Don Giovanni in this space. Don Giovanni is still the theater's most prized opera performance.
While the building’s exterior has become an architectural icon, it’s the interior that leaves visitors truly breathless. Ornate gilded ceilings, glowing hallows of light and classically inspired design make the Estate Theatre’s environment almost as impressive as its performances.
More Things to Do in Czech Republic
Twice as large as the Old Town area, Prague’s New Town (Nove Mesto) is sprawled across one of the banks of the Vltava River. Despite its name, the New Town was founded by Charles IV back in 1348 following his coronation under the Holy Roman Empire. It was later redeveloped during the late 19th century.
The New Town features a mix of historic buildings and squares with more modern developments. Wenceslas Square lies at the heart of the area. This was originally built as a horsemarket and is now a popular place for visitors due to its variety of hotels, shops, restaurants, and nightlife. Other notable squares in the New Town include Charles Square and Republic Square, which also hold plenty of appeal for visitors. The main attractions and historical buildings within the New Town include the Dvořák Museum, the National Museum, the National Theater, the Dancing House, and the New Town Hall.
The St. Agnes Convent is a complex of 13th-century buildings and churches tucked away in a corner of Prague’s Old Town. Consisting primarily of the convent of the Poor Clares and the monastery of the Friars Minor, it represents the first example of a Gothic style of architecture in Bohemia, although part of the monastery was reconstructed in a Renaissance style in the 16th century. The complex was restored and renovated in the 1980 and began exhibiting the National Gallery’s collection of medieval and early Renaissance art in 2000. The collection includes art from the 13th to 16th centuries from Bohemia and central Europe, including more than 200 paintings, sculptures and other crafts. Works from the reign of the Luxembourgs and artwork associated with the rise of the Czech lands during the reigns of Vladislav and Ludwig Jagellon are considered national treasures.
The center of ancient Prague, the Old Town (Stare Mesto) makes a popular starting point for walking tours of the city, sprawled along the eastern banks of the Vltava River and connected to the Lesser Town by the grand Charles Bridge. A key part of the UNESCO World Heritage city, the Old Town’s medieval churches, ancient buildings and maze of cobblestone lanes is historic Prague at its most picturesque, with many structures dating back to the 13th century.
The Old Town Square is the focal point of the district, presided over by the Lady Before Tyn Cathedral, the central Jan Hus statue and the Old Town Hall with its Astronomical Clock tower – one of the most iconic landmarks of Prague, dating back to the early 15th century. The square’s mix of distinctive pastel-shaded buildings and fine Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque architecture has long provided the backdrop for city life, and the public square, once a medieval market, is a popular venue for national celebrations.
Much more than just a pretty façade, the Prague National Theatre (Narodni divadlo) is one of the capital’s most important and culturally significant buildings, celebrated as a symbol of Czech cultural and political independence. Completed in 1883 while the country was under Austrian rule, the National Theatre was originally refused funding by the government of Vienna but after a nationwide appeal and a flood of financial contributions from Czech citizens, building commenced in 1865. It’s unique funding means that, more than any of the city’s historic buildings; the Prague National Theatre really does belong to the people.
Taking 16 years to finish, the theatre is the masterwork of Czech architect Josef Zítek, who crafted a dramatic neo-Renaissance façade reflective of the artistic liberation of the Czech National Revival.
Prague was largely spared from the bombing that scarred other central European cities during World War II, but was attacked in error by the US Air Force on Feb. 14, 1945; many historic buildings were destroyed and several hundred Czechs were killed. The undulating, curvaceous Dancing House now stands on one of the former bomb craters, at the corner of a street overlooking the Vltava River. Designed by the architectural duo of Czech-Croatian Vlado Milunić and Frank Gehry (of Guggenheim Bilbao fame) and completed in 1996, the glass-and-concrete construction stands out among the city’s elegant Neo-Renaissance townhouses and was initially highly controversial in Prague for its extreme post-modern styling.
Like many old European cities, Prague once had city walls and gates. The Powder Tower is one of those gates, and it dates back to the 11th century when it was one of 13 entrances into Prague's Old Town. It was originally called the New Tower, but its name was changed in the 17th century when it was used to store gunpowder. This is the gate future kings of Bohemia used to pass through on their coronation parades along the traditional Royal Way to the Prague Castle.
Today the tower houses a permanent exhibition called Prague Towers. The tower is 213 feet high, and there is a viewing platform at 144 feet, accessible by 186 stairs, where visitors can see the city from above. The Powder Tower and the Old Town Bridge Tower are the only remaining parts of Prague's former old town fortification.
The Old Jewish Cemetery in Prague is located in the Josefov area, which was once the Prague Jewish Town. The Jewish name is Beth Chaim, which means House of Life. It is the second oldest cemetery in Europe and was founded in the 15th century. The oldest existing gravestone is dated April 23, 1439. There are around 20,000 graves in the cemetery with headstones of varying styles from different time periods, such as Baroque, Renaissance, and Gothic.
Throughout the cemetery, pieces of paper can be seen weighed down by rocks in front of graves. Legend has it that the dead can fulfill wishes written on these pieces of paper. However, the rock used to weigh down the paper must be from where you live, not from the cemetery. You'll also notice overlapping headstones crowded together. This is due to a lack of space, resulting in graves being stacked on top of each other. The last person buried in the Old Jewish Cemetery was in 1787.
The magnificent headpiece of Prague’s historic Wenceslas square, the Prague National Museum (Národní Muzeum) is the largest museum complex in the Czech Republic, encompassing five specialized departments. The History and Natural History museums are the most sizable, housing an enormous permanent collection of prehistoric remains, archeological artifacts, rock specimens and other items from all over the world. The National Museum Library, Czech Music Museum and the National Museum of Asian, African and American Cultures, are also part of the complex.
It’s not only the exhibitions that warrant attention – the museum itself is a glorious homage to the Czech National Revival, adorned with the busts of Czech historical figures and fronted by a commandeering statue of St Wenceslas on horseback. The inescapable domed structure is an elaborate feat of neo-Renaissance architecture, featuring over 10 adjourned buildings designed by famous Czech architect Josef Schulz.
Golden Lane, often referred to as the Street of the Alchemists or Alchemist’s Alley, is a little alley situated at Prague Castle and one of the most famous and picturesque streets in the city. Golden Lane and its tiny colored houses were constructed in the 15th century as an alley between the Roman and Late Gothic walls in the northern part of the castle. At first, it housed the castle guards who patrolled the fortification, but since there were more guards than space, the resulting buildings seem to be more fitting for dwarves than for humans. A century later, the tiny alley with the cozy houses apparently became popular with artists and among them, a number of goldsmiths. According to legend, some of these goldsmiths were in fact alchemists, tasked by Emperor Rudolf II to find a way to turn common metals into gold and find the philosopher’s stone.
Cutting a swathe through the Baroque beauty of Prague’s historic heart, Nerudova runs uphill through Malá Strana (Lesser Town), forming a link between Charles Bridge and Prague Castle on the west banks of the Vltava River. In the days of the Czech monarchy, the street formed part of the Royal Way, which the king followed from the Old Town Square to the castle on ceremonial occasions.
Now named after the famous 19th-century poet Jan Neruda, who lived at no. 47, the street is composed of brightly colored and gabled Baroque townhouses and palaces, dating from the 17th and 18th centuries and today bursting with boutique hotels, souvenir shops, bars and restaurants; as the street wends up towards the castle it becomes the province of several overseas embassies.
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